Dmitri Mendeleev was born at Tobolsk, Siberia in 1834 and died in 1907.
Mendeleev studied science at St. Petersburg and graduated in 1856. In 1863 Mendeleev was
appointed to a professorship and in 1866 he succeeded to the Chair in the
University. Mendeleev is best known for
his work on the periodic table; arranging the 63 known elements into a Periodic Table based on atomic mass, which he published in
Principles of Chemistry in 1869. His first
Periodic Table was compiled on the basis of arranging the elements in
ascending order of atomic weight and grouping them by similarity of
predicted the existence and properties of new elements and pointed out accepted atomic
weights that were in error. This organization surpassed attempts at classification by Beguyer de Chancourtois and Newlands and was published a year before the work of Lothar
Mendeleev provided for variance from strict atomic weight order, left space for
new elements, and predicted three yet-to-be-discovered elements including eke-silicon and
eke-boron. His table did not include any of the Noble Gases, however, which had not yet
been discovered. The original table has been modified and
corrected several times, notably by Moseley,
but it had accommodated the discovery of isotopes, rare gases, etc.
Mendeleev anticipated Andrews' concept (1869) of the critical temperature of gases.
He also investigated the thermal expansion of
liquids, and studied the nature and origin of petroleum. He was considered one of the
greatest teachers of his time. In 1890 he resigned his professorship and in 1893 became
director of the bureau of weights and measures in St. Petersburg, where he remained until
his death in 1907.
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